Ubuntu VPS Os Hardening guide

How to Harden a Thai Server
- A Comprehensive Guide to Securing Your Thailand VPS -

Thai server for Thailand VPS hosting


When it comes to hosting your online presence, the security of your server should be a top priority. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the best practices and techniques to harden a Thai server, specifically a VPS (Virtual Private Server) hosted in Thailand. By implementing these security measures, you can ensure the protection of your valuable data, maintain the integrity of your server, and minimize the risk of unauthorized access or attacks.

Section 1: Understanding Server Hardening

What is Server Hardening?

Server hardening refers to the process of securing a server’s operating system and associated services to reduce its vulnerability to potential threats. It involves implementing various security measures, such as configuring access controls, updating software, and disabling unnecessary services, to create a robust and secure environment for your server.

Why is Server Hardening Important?

Server hardening is crucial for maintaining the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of your data. By proactively implementing security measures, you can prevent unauthorized access, minimize the risk of data breaches, and protect your server from malicious attacks. In addition, server hardening helps ensure compliance with industry regulations and standards, giving you peace of mind and building trust with your customers.

The Role of Server Hardening in Thai VPS Security

A Thai VPS, or Virtual Private Server, offers the benefits of dedicated resources and greater control over your hosting environment. However, like any server, it is essential to harden your Thai VPS to mitigate potential security risks. Whether you are hosting a website, application, or online service, securing your Thai VPS is vital to safeguard your data and maintain the trust of your users.

Section 2: Keeping Your Thai Server Up-To-Date

Regularly updating your server is a fundamental aspect of server hardening. By keeping your Thai server up-to-date, you ensure that it is equipped with the latest security patches, bug fixes, and performance improvements. Let’s explore the steps to achieve this.

Step 1: Update the Operating System

To update the operating system of your Thai VPS, follow these commands:

apt-get updateapt-get upgrade

These commands will fetch and install the latest updates for your system. It is recommended to run these commands regularly to ensure that your Thai server is always up-to-date.

Step 2: Update Software Packages

In addition to the operating system, it is essential to update the software packages installed on your Thai server. Outdated software can contain vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers. To update software packages, use the following commands:

apt-get updateapt-get upgrade

This will update all installed packages to their latest versions, providing enhanced security and stability to your Thai server.

Step 3: Enable Automatic Updates

To simplify the process of keeping your Thai server up-to-date, you can enable automatic updates. This ensures that your server receives updates even if you forget to manually install them. To enable automatic updates, follow these steps:

  1. Open the /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/50unattended-upgrades file using a text editor.
  2. Uncomment the line “${distro_id}:${distro_codename}-updates”; to enable automatic updates for the Ubuntu system.
  3. Save and close the file.

With automatic updates enabled, your Thai server will receive updates without requiring manual intervention, reducing the risk of missing critical security patches.

Section 3: Securing User Accounts

User accounts play a crucial role in the security of your Thai server. Implementing proper account management practices helps prevent unauthorized access and strengthens the overall security posture of your server.

Step 1: Restrict Root Access

The root account has unrestricted access to the entire system, making it a prime target for attackers. It is recommended to disable direct root login and use the sudo command for administrative tasks. To restrict root access, follow these steps:

  1. Open the SSH configuration file using a text editor:

2.  sudo vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config

  1. Locate the line PermitRootLogin and set it to no:

4.  PermitRootLogin no

  1. Save and close the file.

By disabling direct root login, you add an extra layer of security to your Thai server, as attackers would need to compromise a valid user account before gaining root privileges.

Step 2: Create Strong User Passwords

Weak passwords are one of the most common vulnerabilities in server security. Enforcing strong passwords for user accounts is essential to prevent brute-force attacks and unauthorized access. Follow these guidelines when creating user passwords:

  • Use a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters.
  • Avoid using common words or easily guessable information.
  • Ensure that passwords are at least eight characters long.
  • Regularly update passwords and avoid reusing them across different accounts.

Additionally, consider implementing a password policy that enforces password complexity requirements and regular password changes for user accounts.

Step 3: Limit User Privileges

To minimize the potential impact of compromised user accounts, it is essential to restrict user privileges. By granting users only the necessary permissions, you reduce the risk of unauthorized access or unintended system modifications. Follow these steps to limit user privileges:

  1. Create user accounts with minimal privileges and assign them to specific user groups.
  2. Use the sudo command to grant temporary administrative privileges when necessary.
  3. Regularly review user accounts and remove unnecessary or unused accounts.

By implementing the principle of least privilege, you ensure that users can only perform actions required for their specific roles, reducing the attack surface of your Thai server.

Section 4: Securing Network Services

Network services running on your Thai server can be potential entry points for attackers. Properly securing these services is essential to prevent unauthorized access and protect the confidentiality and integrity of your data.

Step 1: Disable Unnecessary Services

Unused or unnecessary services can introduce security risks to your Thai server. It is recommended to disable any services that are not required for your specific use case. To disable services, follow these steps:

  1. Identify the services running on your Thai server using the command:

2.  service –status-all

  1. Determine which services are unnecessary or unused.
  2. Disable the identified services using the command:

5.  sudo systemctl disable <service-name>

By disabling unnecessary services, you reduce the attack surface of your Thai server and minimize the potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers.

Step 2: Secure Remote Access

Remote access to your Thai server, such as SSH, should be properly configured and secured. Follow these recommendations to enhance the security of remote access:

  1. Change the default SSH port: By using a non-standard port for SSH, you can reduce the visibility of your Thai server to automated scanning tools. Update the SSH configuration file (/etc/ssh/sshd_config) and modify the Port directive to use a non-standard port (e.g., Port 12345).
  2. Implement Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): Enabling 2FA adds an extra layer of security to the authentication process. This requires users to provide an additional piece of information, such as a unique code generated by a mobile app, in addition to their password.
  3. Use SSH key-based authentication: SSH key-based authentication provides stronger security than password-based authentication. Generate an SSH key pair and configure your Thai server to only allow SSH access using the key.

By implementing these measures, you enhance the security of remote access to your Thai server, making it more resistant to unauthorized access attempts.

Step 3: Implement a Firewall

A firewall is a critical component of server security as it acts as a barrier between your Thai server and potential threats. Implementing a firewall helps control incoming and outgoing network traffic, allowing only authorized connections.

To configure a firewall on your Thai server, you can use iptables, which is a powerful tool for managing network traffic. Here is an example configuration to allow incoming connections on ports 80 (HTTP), 443 (HTTPS), and 22 (SSH), while blocking all other traffic:

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp –dport 80 -j ACCEPTiptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp –dport 443 -j ACCEPTiptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp –dport 22 -j ACCEPTiptables -A INPUT -j DROP

This configuration allows incoming connections on the specified ports while dropping all other traffic. Adjust the rules according to your specific requirements.

By implementing a firewall, you add an extra layer of protection to your Thai server, preventing unauthorized access and reducing the risk of potential attacks.

Section 5: Monitoring and Auditing

Monitoring and auditing are essential aspects of server security. By regularly monitoring your Thai server and auditing its configuration and activities, you can identify potential issues or anomalies and take proactive measures to address them.

Step 1: Monitor Log Files

Log files contain valuable information about system activities, network connections, and potential security incidents. Regularly monitoring log files helps you detect suspicious activities and investigate potential security breaches. Use tools like logwatch or logcheck to automate log monitoring and receive regular reports.

Step 2: Conduct Security Audits

Performing security audits on your Thai server helps identify vulnerabilities, misconfigurations, or potential security weaknesses. Use security auditing tools like Lynis to scan your server’s configuration and generate reports with recommendations for improvement. Regularly conduct security audits to ensure that your Thai server remains secure and up-to-date.

Step 3: Implement Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)

Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) monitor network traffic and system activities to identify potential intrusion attempts or suspicious behavior. Implementing an IDS on your Thai server provides real-time alerts and helps you detect and respond to security incidents promptly. Consider using tools like Snort or Suricata for network-based intrusion detection.

By monitoring and auditing your Thai server, you can proactively identify and address potential security issues, ensuring the ongoing security and integrity of your server.

Section 6: Additional Security Measures

In addition to the fundamental security practices discussed above, there are several other security measures you can implement to further enhance the security of your Thai server.

Step 1: Implement Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) for Web Applications

For web applications hosted on your Thai server, implementing Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) adds an extra layer of security to user authentication. This requires users to provide a second form of verification, such as a one-time password generated by a mobile application, in addition to their username and password.

Step 2: Encrypt Data in Transit and at Rest

Encrypting data in transit and at rest ensures the confidentiality and integrity of your sensitive information. Use secure protocols such as HTTPS for web traffic and implement encryption mechanisms for databases and file storage.

Step 3: Regularly Backup Your Data

Regularly backing up your data is crucial for disaster recovery and business continuity. Implement a robust backup strategy that includes off-site backups to protect your data from loss or corruption. Test your backup and restore processes periodically to ensure their effectiveness.

Step 4: Stay Informed About Security Updates and Vulnerabilities

Keeping yourself updated about security updates and vulnerabilities is essential for maintaining the security of your Thai server. Subscribe to security mailing lists, follow relevant security blogs and forums, and regularly check for updates from software vendors and the server operating system.


Securing your Thai VPS is of utmost importance to protect your data, maintain the integrity of your server, and ensure the trust of your users. By following the best practices outlined in this comprehensive guide, you can harden your Thai server and minimize the risk of unauthorized access or attacks. Remember to regularly update your server, secure user accounts, protect network services, monitor and audit your server, and implement additional security measures to ensure the ongoing security and reliability of your Thai VPS.

This guide is provided “as is” and should not be assumed to be accurate or up to date. Please do your own research for any sections you are interested in applying to your server. At the very least, create a backup before applying changes to your VPS.


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